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Hemp field in Côtes-d’Armor, Brittany, France. France is one of Europe’s leading hemp-producing countries. Photo by Barbetorte [CC BY-SA 3.0 (], from Wikimedia Commons
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Washington, D.C. – A bill overwhelmingly passed by the U.S. Senate that now is being considered by the U.S. House of Representatives could remove hemp from the list of federally-banned controlled substances, plowing the way for the crop to be grown in Oregon and across the country.

That may sound confusing to some, considering the cultivation and sale of cannabis is legal in some form or another in 29 states and the District of Columbia — including since 1998 in Oregon when voters first approved the use of medicinal cannabis.

Let it be known that hemp is not the same crop as legal weed.

A brief deconstruction of hemp vs. cannabis

Industrial hemp is an agricultural crop used in skin products, clothing, dietary supplements, paper, textiles, fuel, CBD oil, and by various published accounts more than 25,000 other applications.

Hemp includes all varietals of the Cannabis plant that contain negligible amounts of THC, the psychoactive ingredient found in recreational and medicinal cannabis.

In other words, as a website called “The Ministry of Hemp” puts it, “Your lungs would fail before your brain attains any high from smoking industrial hemp.”

It’s arguably comparable to the difference between nitrous oxide used by dentists to alleviate pain and nitrous oxide systems used in race-car engines.

As an agricultural crop, hemp is grown and marketed in at least 26 countries, including Canada, France, Great Britain, Spain, Germany, and Japan.

In the 1700s and 1800s, it was mandatory for U.S. farmers to grow hemp if they had the land, according to Farm Collector magazine, a trade publication dedicated to the preservation of vintage farm equipment.

Cannabis flowers are used recreationally but also in medicinalapplications ranging from post-traumatic stress disorder to pain and anxiety management.

The argument about cannabis’ true applicability as a medicine remains debatable to many because the U.S. government keeps the so-called “evil weed” on the list of federally-banned substances — equal to heroin and cocaine — and will not allow scientific research to be conducted in the U.S.

But we at the Banks Post digress.

The Hemp Farming Act of 2018

mothur can cluster sequences using the furthest neighbor, nearest neighbor, or UPGMA (unweighted-pair group method using average linkages) algorithms ( Chloe Short in White Citizens Of Humanity Wholesale Price Sale Online Cheap Release Dates gCTW6dG5
). The ability to let the data speak for themselves in determining OTUs is advantageous compared to database-based approaches that can form clusters, in which sequences are similar to the same database sequences but not to each other. Furthermore, mothur uses the approach employed in DOTUR where OTUs are defined for multiple cutoffs up to the distance threshold so that alternative OTU definitions can be compared. For example, using the furthest neighbor algorithm, we clustered sequences into OTUs up to a distance threshold of 0.10 and observed 13,202, 11,317, and 7,971 OTUs at cutoffs of 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10 distance units, respectively. A similar type of analysis using the approach used in programs such as CD-HIT would limit the user to a nearest neighbor-based approach, and the users would need to run the program for each distance level in which they were interested ( 10 ).

By inputting a file that maps each sequence to a sample identifier, the clusters could be parsed to perform α-diversity analyses. First, we calculated the richness and diversity of the eight samples at OTU cutoffs of 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10 distance units by using the number of observed OTUs, Chao1 estimated minimum number of OTUs, and a nonparametric Shannon diversity index (Table Ezri blouse Multicolour Sea New York Cheap Sale ByhCTRl9
). Second, we calculated rarefaction curves for the eight samples for a 0.10 distance cutoff (Fig. Asymmetrical Front Blazer Black Proenza Schouler Cheap Price Wholesale Price 2018 New Cheap Online Cheap 2018 Newest XHhNBQad
); the original Sogin analysis built rarefaction curves using frequencies acquired from a database-based OTU assignment analysis. Interestingly, mothur calculated the coverage of these samples to be between 0.94 and 0.98, and yet the rarefaction curves continued to climb with increasing sequencing effort. These types of analysis were the extent of the α-diversity measurements performed in the original Sogin analysis, and each sample required up to 4 days to complete on a Quad Opteron 875 2.2-GHz series Dual Core machine with 28 GB of RAM (S. Huse, personal communication). The analysis described in this paper—from aligning of sequences through β-diversity analyses—required less than 2 h with use of a MacBook Pro laptop with 2 GB RAM and with only one of the 2.0-GHz dual processors.

View larger version:
FIG. 2.

Rarefaction curves describing the dependence of discovering novel OTUs as a function of sampling effort for OTUs defined at a 0.10 distance cutoff. The curves for FS312 and FS396 climb to 3,095 and 2,804 OTUs after sampling of 54,894 and 80,769 sequences, respectively.

View this table:

Measures of α diversity for the samples characterized by Sogin et al. ( 27 ) for three OTU definitions

Due to software limitations, it was not possible to assess the β diversity of the samples in the original Sogin analysis. With the software improvements implemented in mothur, we were able to transform the original OTU information into heat maps, Venn diagrams, and dendrograms (Fig. For Sale Online Versus Long Sleeve Chiffon Top Largest Supplier Clearance Choice Sale 2018 New Ebay Online wZIRMnZ
) to describe the similarities in membership and structure of the eight samples. Several interesting observations can be made from this analysis. First, although the dendrograms generated using the Jaccard coefficient and the θ YC community structure similarity coefficient have similar topologies, the terminal branch lengths of the Jaccard coefficient dendrogram are considerably longer for samples 53R, 55R, 115R, and 137. This is interesting because it indicates that while these samples have considerably different memberships (Jaccard), the relative abundances of the shared OTUs are similar. Thus, the differences between the communities are likely found in the rarer OTUs. Second, the two diffuse hydrothermal flow samples clearly cluster away from the others. This is intuitive because of the considerable differences in temperature and chemistry. Third, the only available piece of metadata that explains the clustering of the seawater samples is extreme depth; the deepest sample, 112R, clearly clusters away from the other seawater samples and was taken 2,411 m deeper than was any of the other samples. Considering that this was the only sample taken at such an extreme depth, additional sampling is required in order to have confidence in such a correlation.



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Developer QA site Stack Overflow performs an annual survey to find out more about the programmer community, and the latest set of results has just been published .

JavaScript remains the most widely used programming language among professional developers, making that six years at the top for the lingua franca of Web development. Other Web tech including HTML (#2 in the ranking), CSS (#3), and PHP (#9). Business-oriented languages were also in wide use, with SQL at #4, Java at #5, and C# at #8. Shell scripting made a surprising showing at #6 (having not shown up at all in past years, which suggests that the questions have changed year-to-year), Python appeared at #7, and systems programming stalwart C++ rounded out the top 10.

These aren't, however, the languages that developers necessarily want to use. Only three languages from the most-used top ten were in the most-loved list; Python (#3), JavaScript (#7), and C# (#8). For the third year running, that list was topped by Rust, the new fitted padded jacket White Moncler Really Cheap Online Countdown Package Cheap Price Pictures Sale Online Huge Surprise Cheap Online Discount Best Seller kxjlJuMBl
developed by Mozilla. Second on the list was Kotlin, which wasn't even in the top 20 last year. This new interest is likely due to Google's decision last year to bless the language as an official development language for Android. TypeScript, Microsoft's comes in at fourth, with Google's Womens Peace Heart Keeper Sweater XS Darkest Blue Life is good Free Shipping Choice Clearance Inexpensive Outlet Store For Sale Sale Online E9d73a
coming in at fifth. Smalltalk, last year's second-most loved, is nowhere to be seen this time around.

These languages may be well-liked, but it looks as if the big money is elsewhere. Globally, F# and OCaml are the top average earners, and in the US, Erlang, Scala, and OCaml are the ones to aim for.

Visual Basic 6, Cobol, and CoffeeScript were the top three most-dreaded, which is news that will surprise nobody who is still maintaining Visual Basic 6 applications thousands of years after they were originally written.

Stack Overflow also asked devs about one of today's hot-button issues: artificial intelligence. Only 20 percent of devs were worried about AI taking jobs (compared to 41 percent excited by that possibility—no doubt the Visual Basic 6 devs hope that one day computers will be able to do their jobs for them), but a remarkable 28 percent were concerned by AI intelligence surpassing human intelligence, and 29 percent concerned about algorithms making important decisions more generally.

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